Dymond, J.R., Ausseil, A.-G.E., Kirschbaum, M.U.F., Carswell, F.E., Mason, N.W.H. (2013). Opportunities for restoring indigenous forest in New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 43: 141-153.
Abstract. We assessed the opportunities for restoring indigenous forest from grassland. Using a map of basic ecosystems at 2008, we identified grassland areas with a high ratio of biodiversity benefit (after conversion to indigenous forest) over loss of agricultural production. With approximately 2 Mha of grassland with a benefit/cost ratio of 0.2 or more, there are many opportunities for restoration. We also assessed the opportunities to protect shrublands already regenerating to indigenous forest. There are presently about 0.7 Mha of shrublands with a high carbon sequestration over stock-carrying capacity ratio ( 20). National models of other ecosystem services such as erosion control, provision of fresh water, water regulation, and tourism and recreation, may be used in a second-tier selection process. The methods developed here could be used in a formalised system for calculating ecosystem service offsets.
Keywords: restoration; indigenous forest; ecosystems; biodiversity beneﬁt; shrublands; carbon sequestration; ecosystem services